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Special Issue on Advanced Welding and Joining Technologies – Call for Papers

Recent advancements in welding and related materials joining technologies have enhanced the integrity and performance of assembled components, and have led to the development of advanced manufacturing methods. This special issue seeks experimental and/or theoretical studies covering all aspects of welding and joining, including microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and performance in extreme environments. Characterisation and technique development studies are of interest, particularly related to the materials science of the joint. Review articles are also of interest, but topics of contributed review articles should first be discussed with the editors.

Guest editors:

Enrico Salvati, University of Udine, Italy

Janelle P. Wharry, Purdue University, United States of America

Special issue information:

Recent advancements in welding and related materials joining technologies have enhanced the integrity and performance of assembled components, and have led to the development of advanced manufacturing methods. This special issue seeks experimental and/or theoretical studies covering all aspects of welding and joining, including microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and performance in extreme environments. Characterisation and technique development studies are of interest, particularly related to the materials science of the joint. Review articles are also of interest, but topics of contributed review articles should first be discussed with the editors.

The aim of this Special Issue is to converge original research and review articles on recent advancements in welding, joining, and related technologies. The Special Issue will serve as a key reference for the theory and performance of advanced welds, and will be a platform for further development and application of welding technologies to broader classes of materials.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Novel advanced welding technologies?
  • Multi-scale microstructural characterisation
  • Numerical and theoretical modelling of welding processes and performance
  • Mechanical characterisation (e.g. strength, hardness, toughness, fatigue, creep, wear)
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Residual stress experimental evaluation and modelling

Manuscript submission information:

All manuscripts will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the standard practices of Materials Today Communications. For more information on Materials Today Communications, including the journal ranking and scores, publication policies, author guidelines and publication charges, please refer to the journal website at https://www.journals.elsevier.com/materials-today-communications

Please submit your manuscripts using the Editorial Manager web portal: https://www.editorialmanager.com/mtcomm and select the option VSI: Welding & Joining in the drop-down menu at the time of submission.

Submission Deadline: September 30th, 2022

Learn more about the benefits of publishing in a special issue: https://www.elsevier.com/authors/submit-your-paper/special-issues

Interested in becoming a guest editor? Discover the benefits of guest editing a special issue and the valuable contribution that you can make to your field: https://www.elsevier.com/editors/role-of-an-editor/guest-editors

HIGH TEC

Revolutionizing car body manufacturing using a unified steel metallurgy concept

Numerous high-performance steels with various compositions and mechanical properties were developed to enable a safe and light-weight automotive body-in-white (BIW). However, this multisteel scheme creates substantial challenges, including the resistance spot welding of dissimilar steels, processing optimization, and recycling. Here, we propose a revolutionary unified steel (UniSteel) concept, i.e., using a single chemistry to produce multiple steel grades for the entire BIW. The tensile strengths of various UniSteel grades are ranging from 600 to 1680 MPa, encompassing the strengths of typical commercial counterparts while exhibiting competent ductility. The prototype parts made of UniSteel press-hardened steel (PHS) grade demonstrate superior side-intrusion resistance over the commercial PHS, and the satisfactory weldability is verified. The UniSteel reduces the resistivity difference within the sheet stack-ups, allowing the simplification of welding processes. The UniSteel concept could potentially revolutionize the manufacturing of BIW for the global automotive industry and contribute to carbon neutrality.

https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/sciadv.abk0176?af=R#

EVENTS

Welding degree program at Northern College ‘…the next evolutionary step’

Northern College is looking to elevate the credentials of its welding techonology students… by offering a three-year applied degree over a diploma.

Vice-President Academic Aaron Klooster days the current course content is already at the same level as other applied degrees.

“And of course these advanced diplomas were created before applied degrees were really being discussed at Ontario colleges,” Klooster notes. “This is, I think, just the next evolutionary step in our welding program at Kirkland Lake.”

If granted permission for the degree program, Northern would still offer one- and two-year welding diplomas.

Dean of trades, technology and apprenticeships David Francis says the advantage of the degree would be more science behind welding and associated trades.

“This would be things like metallurgy, looking at the constituent parts of different metals as they’re joined,” says Francis, “and this allows people to kind of have a bit of a leg up if they wanted to, any kind of aspect of innovation, applied research, perhaps over time a supervisory, more science work that would come from the degree structure.”

Francis adds that a degree holder could pursue graduate education as well.

Source:

Welding degree program at Northern College ‘…the next evolutionary step’

With a powerful laser blast, scientists near a nuclear fusion milestone

A National Ignition Facility experiment produced a record 1.3 million joules of fusion energy.

laser blast in a nuclear fusion experiment

With a powerful laser zap, scientists have blasted toward a milestone for nuclear fusion.

A fusion experiment at the world’s biggest laser facility released 1.3 million joules of energy, coming close to a break-even point known as ignition, where fusion begins to release more energy than required to detonate it. Reaching ignition would strengthen hopes that fusion could one day serve as a clean, plentiful energy source, a goal that scientists have struggled to make progress toward (SN: 2/8/18).

By pummeling a tiny capsule with lasers at the National Ignition Facility, or NIF, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, scientists triggered fusion reactions that churned out more than 10 quadrillion watts of power over 100 trillionths of a second. In all, the experiment, performed on August 8, released about 70 percent of the energy of the laser light used to set off the fusion reactions, putting the facility much closer to ignition than ever before.

Notably, because the capsule absorbs only a portion of the total laser energy focused on it, the reactions actually produced more energy than directly went into igniting them. “That, just fundamentally, is a truly amazing feat,” says plasma physicist Carolyn Kuranz of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, who was not involved with the research. By that metric, the fusion reactions produced about five times as much energy as was absorbed.

“It’s a really exciting result, and it wasn’t clear that NIF would be able to get to this result,” Kuranz says. For years, NIF scientists have strived to reach ignition, but they have been plagued with setbacks (SN: 4/4/13). While the new results have yet to be published in a scientific journal, NIF scientists went public with their discovery after word got out to the scientific community and excitement mounted.

“It makes me very hopeful … for fusion in the future,” Kuranz says.

Nuclear fusion, the same process that powers the sun, would be an appealing source of energy on Earth because it checks several boxes for environmental friendliness: It wouldn’t generate climate-warming greenhouse gases or dangerous, long-lived radioactive waste. In nuclear fusion, hydrogen nuclei meld together to form helium, releasing energy in the process. But fusion requires extreme temperatures and pressures, making it difficult to control.

NIF is not alone in the fusion quest. Other projects, such as ITER, an enormous facility under construction in southern France, are using different techniques to tackle the problem (SN: 1/27/16). But those efforts have also met with difficulties. Perhaps unsurprisingly, controlling reactions akin to those in the sun is challenging no matter how you go about it.

In NIF’s fusion experiments, 192 laser beams converge on a small cylinder containing a peppercorn-sized fuel capsule. When that powerful laser burst hits the cylinder, X-rays stream out, vaporizing the capsule’s exterior and imploding the fuel within. That fuel is a mixture of deuterium and tritium, varieties of hydrogen that respectively contain one or two neutrons in their atomic nuclei. As the fuel implodes, it reaches the extreme densities, temperatures and pressures needed to fuse the hydrogen into helium. That helium can further heat the rest of the fuel, what’s known as alpha heating, setting off a fusion chain reaction.

That last step is crucial to boosting the energy yield. “What’s new about this experiment is that we’ve created a system in which the alpha heating rate is far larger than we’ve ever achieved before,” says NIF physicist Arthur Pak.

Scientists navigated a variety of quagmires to get to this stage. “There’s a whole a host of physics issues … that we’ve faced off and mitigated,” Pak says. For example, researchers took pains to make the capsule absorb more energy, to eliminate tiny defects in the capsule and to carefully tune the laser pulses to maximize fusion.

In 2018, researchers began seeing the payoff of those efforts. NIF achieved a then-record fusion energy of 55,000 joules. Then, in spring 2021, NIF reached 170,000 joules. Further tweaking the design of the experiment, scientists suspected, could increase the output even more. But the new experiment went beyond expectations, producing nearly eight times the energy of the previous effort.

Further studies will help NIF scientists determine exactly how their changes created such bountiful energy and how to enhance the output further. Still, even if NIF achieves full-fledged ignition, using fusion to generate power for practical purposes is still a long way off. “There will be a huge amount of work needed to turn the technology into a viable source of energy,” says laser plasma physicist Stuart Mangles of Imperial College London, who was not involved with the research. “Nevertheless, this is a really important milestone on the way.”

Questions or comments on this article? E-mail us at feedback@sciencenews.org

CITATIONS

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. National Ignition Facility experiment puts researchers at threshold of fusion ignition. Published August 18, 2021.

Source:https://www.sciencenews.org/

Creating awareness of bright future in welding industry

source:engmag.in

Creating awareness of bright future in welding industry

Mr. Vishwanath V. Kamath – Managing Director , Fronius India Private Limited.

Q. As a prominent player in the welding space, what trends and innovations are you observing that will continue to shape the future of the welding

The welding or, joining technologies are fundamental to manufacturing. There has been a great broadening of process types for joining of metals over the last 40 years, and therefore the range of products available. From conventional forms of arc welding to cold metal transfer(CMT), CMT-Twin, CMT Advanced, high performance welding processes like laser hybrid-Twin, Twin Wire tandem welding, Aluminum spot welding (DeltaSpot) etc. techniques have been added, to increase the range of materials to be joined, the strength and aspect ratio of the joint, the speed of joining, the reduction in any collateral damage etc.

Power sources has become smart and intelligent to face various challenges in welding and provide the complete process solution through high Speed communication and by processing a huge amount of data in the shortest possible time. The future trend of welding sector is hidden in the challenges the manufacturing industry is facing today- like environmental sustainability including the global warming, development of newer alloys towards light weighting and the inherent difficulties in joining technologies owing to thin and light weight material joining techniques. Innovations trend in welding in the coming future will be focussed towards the development of advanced technologies for joining Al, Al alloys and High strength steels, without much of the post welding operations by adopting to low heat high performance welding techniques.

Q. How are technology trends like robotics and automation influencing the welding industry?

Robotics have become much more popular in the last 20 years as they can significantly reduce labour costs and operate in hazardous environments such as welding. Automotive sector has been the key driving force for the robotics market which is growing steadily over last 2 decades. We must mention that the understanding and opinion of this sector has seen a sea change –conventionally this segment used to believe that robot is the saviour and welding machine was never given the due attention. But over the years the manufacturing sector has understood well that the key performer in robotic welding is the welding technology adopted and the easy integration of the robot with the welding system for seamless communication and possibilities.

Welding Automation though aspire to grow faster but due to the input material inconsistency and need for the high initial capital investment, has put this on a slow track. Another bigger opportunity / challenges is lack of integrators for providing high precision welding automation solutions. To catch up with the growing demand of robotics and automation for welding, welding fraternity must come forward to share and upgrade integrators with welding knowledge to rise them to the level of total solution provider.

Q. What kind of opportunities are you expecting from International Congress 2020 (IC2020) being organized by The Indian Institute of Welding?

International Congress 2020 (IC2020) is a global platform for welding companies to showcase the latest developments in the field of welding. The event is attended by welding enthusiasts from across the country and people from all segments of manufacturing industry. Fronius is known for its strong research & development (R&D) and product development. There will be two international paper presentation in the IC 2020 from Fronius International GmbH.

Q. What products do you plan to showcase at IC2020?

We may showcase our latest technologies and developments in light weight material joining technologies and some high performance technologies for metal fabrication industry. Fronius India showcase the latest developments and new products for high performance welding and welding automation and robotic solutions to the Indian Industry and delegates.

Q. Comment on the challenges and opportunities in Indian welding industry?

The most common challenges is the perception of the young generation about this industry. There is huge number of young workforce getting ready to join industry but very few of them wants to join welding or, metal fabrication industry as they are lured by the comfort and glare of the IT and other so called white collar job. This is leading to a huge manpower and skilled man power shortage in the manufacturing especially welding industry. Welding Industry must work on improving the impression and attracting the young generations to join this sector. This can be done by adopting latest technologies as the new generation is going to be tech savvy. Welding stalwarts’ must take the time out and reach out to the institutions to share their experiences and life story as a welding professionals.

Q. Comment on the present status of the Indian Welding sector vis- à-vis global peers.

Indian welding sector has huge opportunities for growth as the global majors are eying India as the most safe, profitable and reliable destination for manufacturing & investment. Govt policies like “Make in India”, “Skill India” has undoubtedly have given required impetus to this sector. In order to reduce cost of welding products many has started adopting cheaper products, techniques but in long remained vulnerable. Where the global welding industry is looking at the Total Cost of Production (TCoP) but Indian industry is still considering the ownership cost overlooking the total cost of operation.

Q. What are the future growth prospects and opportunities in welding in India?

Joining of metals would remain important for all sectors of the industry as metals like steel and aluminium etc. are needed in every sectors be it infrastructure, heavy engineering, automotive, defence and aerospace etc. As Indian GDP growth rate, even after the slowdown, remains among the toppers globally, India will continue to remain the preferred destination for foreign investors. This will keep boosting the manufacturing sector and definitely welding industry as well. Productivity, profitability and sustainable growth will be key factors for the survival of any industry in this volatile market. Adoption of advanced welding knowledge, technology, skill and optimization of overall cost of production will be key to success.

Talking with HP’s head of metal 3D printing

source: The Fabricator

In a wide-ranging interview at FABTECH 2019, the Global Head of HP Inc.’s 3D Metals division, Dr. Tim Weber, spoke enthusiastically about how the company’s binder-jet technology is used across the company’s many lines of printers, from $100 home units to large, $10-million graphics printers to the new HP Metal Jet 3D printing system.

“The key is we have an inkjet-technology printhead that’s basically the same in all those printers,” he said. “We’re vertically integrated, and we’ve always kept that [technology] in-house.”

Other topics Weber discussed with Additive Report Editor Don Nelson include:

• What distinguishes binder-jet metal 3D printing from other techniques.

• AM’s viability as a high-volume production process.

HP Metal Jet 3D printer.

Nanotechnology enables engineers to weld previously un-weldable aluminum alloy

by Matthew Chin, University of California, Los Angeles

Nanotechnology enables engineers to weld previously un-weldable aluminum alloy
Two pieces of aluminum alloy 7075 welded together using a nanoparticle-enhanced filler wire. Credit: Oszie Tarula/UCLA

An aluminum alloy developed in the 1940s has long held promise for use in automobile manufacturing, except for one key obstacle. Although it’s nearly as strong as steel and just one-third the weight, it is almost impossible to weld together using the technique commonly used to assemble body panels or engine parts.

That’s because when the alloy is heated during welding, its molecular structure creates an uneven flow of its constituent elements—aluminum, zinc, magnesium and copper—which results in cracks along the weld.

Now, engineers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have developed a way to weld the alloy, known as AA 7075. The solution: infusing titanium carbide nanoparticles—particles so small that they’re measured in units equal to one billionth of a meter—into AA 7075 welding wires, which are used as the filler material between the pieces being joined. A paper describing the advance was published in Nature Communications.

Using the new approach, the researchers produced welded joints with a tensile strength up to 392 megapascals. (By comparison, an aluminum alloy known as AA 6061 that is widely used in aircraft and automobile parts, has a tensile strength of 186 megapascals in welded joints.) And according to the study, post-welding heat treatments, could further increase the strength of AA 7075 joints, up to 551 megapascals, which is comparable to steel.

Nanotechnology enables engineers to weld previously un-weldable aluminum alloy
Graduate student Maximilian Sokoluk; laboratory mechanician Travis Widick, holding a demonstration bike frame welded using aluminum alloy 7075; and Professor Xiaochun Li. Credit: Kenny Stadelmann/UCLA

Because it’s strong but light, AA 7075 can help increase a vehicle’s fuel and battery efficiency, so it’s already often used to form airplane fuselages and wings, where the material is generally joined by bolts or rivets rather than welded. The alloy also has been used for products that don’t require joining, such as smartphone frames and rock-climbing carabiners.

But the alloy’s resistance to welding, specifically, to the type of welding used in automobile manufacturing, has prevented it from being widely adopted.

“The new technique is just a simple twist, but it could allow widespread use of this high-strength aluminum alloy in mass-produced products like cars or bicycles, where parts are often assembled together,” said Xiaochun Li, UCLA’s Raytheon Professor of Manufacturing and the study’s principal investigator. “Companies could use the same processes and equipment they already have to incorporate this super-strong aluminum alloy into their manufacturing processes, and their products could be lighter and more energy efficient, while still retaining their strength.”

The researchers already are working with a bicycle manufacturer on prototype bike frames that would use the alloy; and the new study suggests that nanoparticle-infused filler wires could also make it easier to join other hard-to-weld metals and metal alloys.


Explore furtherSuperstrong Al alloys may change manufacturing processes for automobiles, aerospace devices

An Interconnected Arc Welding Robot Solution fit for Industry

source:IFR INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION ROBOTICS

Dec 06, 2019 — Roboteco SpA recently developed a robotic welding cell for its customer Steel-Tech aimed at improving production and inserting into the production process a new machine that is totally interconnected with all stages of the manufacturing process.

3D Model of Robotic Weld Cell using Panasonic TAWER TIG System © Roboteco

With the installation of the new robotic cell, Steel-Tech aims to unify its processes, interconnecting the machines to increase speed and enable tracking and quality control the production flows in a systematic and reliable way.

Through its production management software, Steel-Tech is able to monitor and manage all the main machines in the factory; transferring production orders, controlling production flow and cycle times and, finally, observing the results.

Panasonic Desk Top Programming & Simulation DTPS allows off-line robot weld program development in a virtual 3D space followed by direct machine upload and interfacing with production management programs.

System interconnection allows parameter and quantity control enabling cycle control and optimisation.

The production management software automatically downloads analyses and saves the data from the welding robot in its own archive. One of the main benefits is having total interconnection of the production process starting from the offline programming, through the control of the production process and the parameters, to the tele-monitoring services in case of fault.

The Arc Welding Robot Solution

The cell developed by Roboteco-Italargon after a preliminary study phase together with the customer is composed of a Panasonic TAWERS TIG arc welding robot model TM-1400 with filler metal and two working stations with turn-tilt positioners.

TAWERS (The Arc Welding Robot Solution) robot is a unique architecture in which a single CPU controls and monitors the robot movement synchronized with the filler metal feeding and welding parameter control – “All in One” welding solution from one manufacturer. Integrated into the weld system is the Human Machine Interface Teach Pendant to facilitate program creation.

Installed Robotic Weld Cell
Installed Robotic Weld Cell © Roboteco

A single source software and a user-friendly HMI allow the operator to create and optimise welding programs using the wide range of functions available through the Teach Pendant and utilizing specific subprograms.

For example, the Welding Navigator subprogram assists the operator by calculating the welding parameters through selection of workpiece variables (material, thickness etc.) using data derived from extensive research.

The specific design of Panasonic TAWERS TIG torch simplifies the welding process. The wire is inclined towards the welding pool with an angle of precisely 30° and is pre-heated by passing close to the arc. By means of this special torch configuration the robot programmer can focus on TCP (the tungsten electrode) without having to worry about wire positioning, gaining high flexibility and better torch positioning.

This Panasonic torch design can easily support all robot functions including AVC (Arc Voltage Control), the adaptive software that allows to keep stick-out (distance between electrode and workpiece) constant.

Panasonic TAWERS TIG Welding Cell in Operation
Panasonic TAWERS TIG Welding Cell in Operation © Roboteco

Data Management and Industry 4.0

Roboteco-Italargon and Steel-Tech have agreed to make intensive use of arc welding data management software.

Through adaptive control, the CPU of the robot supplies and controls all process parameters (current, voltage, welding speed, wire speed, wire feeder servo motor’s electrical consumption etc.) and arc welding data management software allows the user to set alarm ranges, to view them remotely via an external PC and to record them in logs filed by welding section.

Data Output Screens
Data Output Screens © Roboteco

The robot system is also equipped with the Roboteco Industry 4.0 kit that allows interconnection with Steel-Tech general management software.

Roboteco Industry 4.0 kit is the result of a study with the goal of making interconnection of the robotic cell with external environment easy and flexible and enabling data and information exchange. For example transfer of production orders, quantity of pieces to produce compared with the pieces already produced, real welding parameters compared with set parameters, cycle time, robot alarms and status and many other available information.

All information is extrapolated from the robot in an external PLC with dedicated HMI and with a simple library open to be connected with all the main software languages (HTML, VB, C#, Java, etc.).

This kit could also enable remote access from a mobile device by implementing web pages, accessible via mobile devices (tablet, smartphone, etc.) external to the company network or PC connected to the same line.; the same kit could enable the connection through FTP Server.

The industry 4.0 kit allows also for remote control of the machine; Roboteco-Italargon’s technician can access from the service offices the robot status and alarms. In this way the technicians could analyse possible faults and cooperate with customer to solve them remotely.

Desk Top Programming & Simulation System (DTPS)

In order to make the programming more efficient, Steel-Tech utilizes the offline programming software Panasonic DTPS.

DTPS Offline Programming
DTPS Offline Programming © Roboteco

DTPS is a simulation software developed exclusively for Panasonic robots. With this software, users can create and edit robot programs and verify robot motion offline. DTPS enables a smooth transfer of robot programs from office PC to the robot controller.

DTPS makes it possible to run the robot program on the PC in simulation and optimise the robot movement with the corresponding welding parameters offline.

By importing the 3D CAD files of the pieces to be welded, the company can utilize DTPS to verify the accessibility of the robot in each position of the pieces to be welded, evaluate the cycle time, avoid collision, program the robot movement and all process parameters and edit or modify it by PC and various other functions which make it an indispensable tool for optimising welding processes.

The benefits are the reduction of welding cell machine downtime, time saving of programming welding lines by using special macros in DTPS software and analysis of product costs through process simulation.

Today Steel-Tech is utilizing the new welding robot for welding stainless steel parts for one of tis distinguished customer; the welding programs were designed totally in the 3D environmental of DTPS and transferred to the robot with the production orders.

Integrating the sophisticated TAWERS welding system with the Roboteco Industry 4.0 kit and DTPS under a general production management software enables complete process interconnectivity and smart data feedback. Understanding in real time the performance of the production processes allows for early identification of errors or uncharacteristic machine performance, which could help to avoid major faults and thus reduce downtime. Combining DTPS with weld data feedback allows for optimisation of cycle time leading to maximised output rates. With Industry 4.0 kit the robot is interconnected with Steel-Tech production management software that oversees also other machines and phases of the production exchanging with them data in term of IoT.

TIG Weld Example
TIG Weld Example © Roboteco

About the companies

Roboteco SpA was founded in 1988, having sensed a growing need in the market for automated arc welding and, thanks to the almost thirty-year partnership with Panasonic Welding System, Roboteco has specialized in the promotion and integration of Panasonic TAWERS technology, a revolutionary fully integrated welding robot solution, focusing on the Automotive and General Industry sectors. In 2017 Roboteco S.p.a. acquired Italargon, another historical brand manufacturer of robotic and automatic welding solutions. Since becoming Roboteco-Italargon, the company has continued to grow and has diversified from MIG and TIG to Laser Beam Welding (LBW).

Steel-Tech Srl is a company originally established as manufacturer of components for cereal mills and since has diversified towards a wider range mechanical metal processing. With the generational changeover, the company has evolved to introduce welding processes, mainly using TIG, in different sectors like medical, pharmaceutical, food & packaging and metal furniture.

The company development continued with the introduction of robotic TIG welding with a first Roboteco-Italargon cell some years ago and further today with a new robotic cell also equipped with TIG welding process and Panasonic TAWERS (The Arc Welding Robot Solution) system, but intended for integration into the new industry 4.0 company development.

Focus on IIW Ugo Guerrera Prize On 31/03/2020

source: International Institute of Welding (IIW)

Sponsored by the Italian Institute of Welding this IIW Award recognises an individual or team responsible for fabrication of an outstanding recently completed welded construction from the viewpoints of design, materials or fabrication methods. It was awarded in 2019 to Mrs Claudia Pavan and her team from Cimolai (Italy) for the construction of The Occulus. Call for Ugo Guerrera 2022 is being launched, so don’t miss the opportunity. Contact the IIW Secretariat for any question at iiw@iiwelding.org.The Ugo Guerrera Prize 2019 is awarded to Mrs Claudia Pavan (Italy), Project Manager,
and her team from Italian steel fabricator Cimolai SpA who were responsible for completing the complex and unique welded structure of The Oculus, World Trade Center Transportation Hub, New York, USA.
Pavan holds a degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Padova and achieved
her Master degree in Design of Infrastructures at the University of Padua in 2004. She
has worked with Cimolai since her graduation on a range of international construction
projects, becoming a Project Manager in 2011.
The Oculus serves as the main entrance hall to the hub which provides intra-city and interstate transit services for more than 250,000 daily commuters, users and visitors. The bird-like design of the building required an extraordinary level of coordination, detailing, assembly and welding expertise. In addition to complex joints and
welding details, the main challenge was to fabricate the elements within a tight tolerance. As most of the elements were three-dimensionally curved plate steel, a detailed study was performed to defi ne the shapes and establish appropriate tolerances. The welding fabrication was completed with the highest level of commitment and quality.